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Anopheles (Cellia) annularis van der Wulp, 1884

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Habitats

Larvae of Anopheles annularis are typically found in clean, still bodies of water with abundant vegetation, especially ponds, swamps and rice fields. They are strongly associated with hill rice fields in Java and have been found in a wide variety of habitats in Thailand, including ponds, swamps, marshes, ditches, pits, wells, sand pools, ground pools, flood pools, stream pools, stream margins, seepage springs, rice fields, animal footprints and rock pools. Adults have been collected in non-riverine and canal-irrigated locations and have also been found in hilly-forested areas.

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Resting and feeding preferences

Females will enter human dwellings and animal shelters. They are primarily zoophilic but are known to bite humans even in the presence of cattle.

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Vectorial capacity

Anopheles annularis is an important vector of malaria in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, but is considered to be of less importance elsewhere. It has been incriminated as a vector along border areas of Thailand and Cambodia, and as a vector of Plasmodium vivax in villages with river-irrigated rice fields in Afghanistan. An. annularis is regarded as a secondary vector in Myanmar, but is responsible for epidemic outbreaks of malaria in the Rakhine coastal region where population densities increase dramatically after major cyclone activity. An. annularis may transmit malaria in areas where humans are the most available hosts, for example, this species was implicated during a P. vivax epidemic in a village in the Narayanganj District of Bangladesh where cattle were absent near houses.

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Further details and the sources for this text can be found in

Sinka, M.E., Bangs, M.J, Manguin, S., Chareonviriyaphap, T., Patil, A.P., Temperley, W.H., Gething, P.W., Elyazar, I.R.F., Kabaria, C.W., Harbach, R.E. and Hay, S.I. (2011). The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis. Parasites and Vectors 4: 89

This text has come from multiple sources which are all listed in the above paper