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Anopheles (Cellia) flavirostris (Ludlow, 1914)

The majority of bionomic information on this species has come from the Philippines.

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Habitats

Anopheles flavirostris is quintessentially a foothill, stream-breeding species but is by no means entirely restricted to such lotic environments. In the Philippines, An. flavirostris can be found from the coastal plains near sea level to elevations up to 1500m, although it is more commonly found no higher than 600m elevation throughout its range. Characteristically, this species has a high preference for clear, slow-moving fresh-water habitats that are typically partly shaded by surrounding overhead vegetation and with margins containing emergent plants. In the foothills of western Java, An. flavirostris has been commonly collected from margins of forested streams with moderate to high flow rate. It can also be found at the edges of seepage pools, slow-flowing grassy river edges, canals and irrigation ditches. It has been reported from natural wells and occasionally stagnant pools, and very rarely from rice fields or ponds and pools in stream beds. It typically has a low tolerance for salinity and prefers more alkaline (7.3-8.2) water. Larval habitats have been described as being relatively close to human habitation compared to many other species. In western Java, An. flavirostris has been shown to be associated with lower elevation foothill sites, lower water temperatures with less acidity, greater water depth, higher water current, rocky substrate, higher canopy cover, greater forested riparian vegetation and higher amounts of low emergent vegetation compared to most other anopheline species in the area.

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Resting and feeding preferences

Adult females are primarily zoophilic, preferring to feed on larger animals (e.g. water buffalo, cows), although they will readily attack humans both indoors and outdoors. This species has been described as primarily human-biting and endophagic in Sabah. Elsewhere, it is regarded as exophagic, but this varies depending on the circumstances and season. Overall, this species appears opportunistic in feeding habits and can show a varying preference for biting location that appears dependent on the availability of hosts. Females blood-feed throughout the evening with lower numbers in the early evening gradually increasing to peak biting frequency on humans nearer midnight and for several hours afterwards (22:00 to 03:00), with a sharp drop off in activity before dawn. Females are strongly exophilic, resting during the day on low vegetation, often near cool, damp overhanging stream banks close to larval habitats. Very seldom are they found resting indoors during daylight hours, although pre- and post-feeding indoor resting does occur, but rarely for long periods before exiting the house.

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Vectorial capacity

This species has been incriminated frequently as a vector of human malarial parasites in the Philippines and is regarded as the primary vector throughout much of the country. Under favourable circumstances low infective rates remain sufficient to maintain endemic transmission or cause outbreaks. It has been implicated in malaria transmission above 1000m elevation in Luzon. It is a confirmed malarial vector in Sabah (Malaysian Borneo) along the eastern coast (Banggi Island, Semporna, Pitas). In Indonesia, this species is seldom encountered in human landing collections and is regarded as only an incidental, focal vector. Only a few historical records of natural infections are known from Indonesia, specifically in western Java, Sulawesi and Palau Laut in southeastern Kalimantan (Borneo).

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Further details and the sources for this text can be found in

Sinka, M.E., Bangs, M.J, Manguin, S., Chareonviriyaphap, T., Patil, A.P., Temperley, W.H., Gething, P.W., Elyazar, I.R.F., Kabaria, C.W., Harbach, R.E. and Hay, S.I. (2011). The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis. Parasites and Vectors 4: 89

This text has come from multiple sources which are all listed in the above paper