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Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara Galvão & Damasceno, 1942

Anopheles marajoara is a member of the An. albitarsis complex.

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Habitats

Anopheles marajoara is a lowland species, associated with wetlands, secondary forests and human intervention. Dominance of An. marajoara over An. darlingi in Brazil may be a result of human interventions which favour species that oviposit in open lagoons with abundant macrophytes. Forest clearance and pollution may well increase the availability of sites such as agricultural ponds and sunlit marshy areas, which are the preferred habitats of An. marajoara. Overall, An. marajoara larval sites are generally sunlit with clear, still water, although there are examples of this species being found in both clear and muddy waters, such as fish ponds and gold mine dugouts.

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Resting and feeding preferences

In Amapa, Brazil, An. marajoara is described as exclusively exophilic, which appears to be the case across its range, however a study in Colombia examining the indoor resting behaviour of anophelines, reported An. marajoara resting indoors close to the ground, suggesting some endophilic behaviour in limited areas. Anopheles marajoara bites both humans and animals, both indoors and outdoors throughout the night, with biting tending to peak in the evening, though again these characteristics can vary according to location.

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Vectorial capacity

Anopheles marajoara has been found within Brazil in high densities and with high levels of Plasmodium infection when compared to An. darling, and is thus considered to be is a dominant vectors species.

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Further details and the sources for this text can be found in

Sinka, M.E., Rubio-Palis, Y., Manguin, S., Patil, A.P., Temperley, W.H., Gething, P.W., Van Boeckel, T.P., Kabaria, C.W., Harbach, R.E. and Hay, S.I. (2010). The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Americas: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis. Parasites & Vectors, 3:72

This text has come from multiple sources which are all listed in the above paper