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Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari species complex

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Habitats

Anopheles nuneztovari larvae are found in both sunlit and shaded habitats. Sites usually contain fresh, clear, still or flowing water with floating or emergent vegetation although An. nuneztovari larvae have also been found in several turbid water bodies including brick pits containing very turbid water polluted with brick dust. Habitats include small or large, natural or constructed bodies of water, including lagoons, lakes, slow flowing rivers, fish ponds, gold mine dugouts, rain puddles and temporary or permanent pools, vehicle tracks, hoof prints and small ponds. It is not known to breed in rice fields.

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Resting and feeding preferences

Adult behaviour differs depending on the sibling species, most specifically in terms of their biting times, with An. nuneztovari A (Brazil) biting earlier, peaking between 18:00 and 20:00, and An. nuneztovari B/C (Venezuela and Colombia) biting later and throughout the night, peaking between 22:00 and 02:00. Peri-domiciliary biting of An. nuneztovari early in the evening has been reported in Buenaventura, Colombia, however this may be the result of low biting densities rather than a true indication of preference. Anopheles nuneztovari mainly feeds on animals, but will bite humans outdoors. Studies in Amapa, Brazil and Venezuela, which analysed blood meals of An. nuneztovari, suggest zoophilic behaviour, but an accompanying human landing catch in the same area found over 120 mosquitoes per person per night. Exo- and endophagy of members of this species complex vary with location and local human behaviour, such as a propensity to stay outdoors late into the evening, or the application of insecticides. All sibling species within the An. nuneztovari complex are highly exophilic, resting outdoors both before and after feeding.

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Vectorial capacity

Anopheles nuneztovari B/C (Venezuela and Colombia) are dominant malaria vector species.  The Brazilian sibling is considered to be a non-vector, possibly due to its behaviour rather than an inability to transmit malaria.

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Further details and the sources for this text can be found in

Sinka, M.E., Rubio-Palis, Y., Manguin, S., Patil, A.P., Temperley, W.H., Gething, P.W., Van Boeckel, T.P., Kabaria, C.W., Harbach, R.E. and Hay, S.I. (2010). The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Americas: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis. Parasites & Vectors, 3:72

This text has come from multiple sources which are all listed in the above paper