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Anopheles (Anopheles) quadrimaculatus Say, 1824

Within this Subgroup, Anopheles quadrimaculatus (formerly Sp. A) is the most wide-spread species and it is the only member identified as a dominant vector species. This species is therefore the focus of this webpage, with the caveat that some studies included do not distinguish species and report An. quadrimaculatus s.l.

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Habitats

Anopheles quadrimaculatus is highly associated with rice cultivation, showing a preference for the oligotrophic conditions found when rice fields are first flooded. Such conditions reflect those found in the natural larval habitat of this species; generally fresh, still water in relatively large sites such as lakes and marshes with emergent vegetation. Unusual larval sites have been reported including a sewage retention pond containing highly polluted effluent draining from a pig farm, a small plastic bucket containing rainwater, submerged leaf litter and floating pine needles, and wastewater evaporation-percolation ponds in Florida.

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Resting and feeding preferences

Within the subgroup, females appear to be generally zoophilic, biting and resting outdoors, however, this may be an artefact of reported sampling locations which have a tendency to be where there is a lack of human hosts) rather than an intrinsic preference. Of the species in this subgroup, An. quadrimaculatus appears to show the highest level of anthropophily, although this is still relatively low. Blood meals of An. quadrimaculatus (Sp. A), Sp. B (An. smaragdinus) and Sp. C1 (An. diluvialis) at a campsite where human hosts were available, and in a woodland approximately a mile away where there was a lower chance of human contact, showed that 10.7% of An. quadrimaculatus sampled at the campsite had fed on humans compared to none in the wooded area. The other two species demonstrated very low or no human biting at both sites. Such exophagic and zoophilic behaviour has also been reported elsewhere, where engorged females were frequently found in horse stables and cattle barns and observed feeding on large domestic animals. Anopheles quadrimaculatus bites throughout the night, showing higher activity at dusk and dawn. Resting behaviour is exophilic, and includes sites in holes and rot cavities in trees, livestock barns, outdoor latrines, under bridges and under the eaves of buildings.

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Vectorial capacity

Within this subgroup, An. quadrimaculatus (formerly Sp. A) is the only member identified as a dominant malaria vector species.

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Further details and the sources for this text can be found in

Sinka, M.E., Rubio-Palis, Y., Manguin, S., Patil, A.P., Temperley, W.H., Gething, P.W., Van Boeckel, T.P., Kabaria, C.W., Harbach, R.E. and Hay, S.I. (2010). The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Americas: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis. Parasites & Vectors, 3:72

This text has come from multiple sources which are all listed in the above paper